Advice 1: How to make a Fresnel lens

The name of the lens was in honor of the Creator, an outstanding French physicist Augustin Jean Fresnel. Regular optical lenses consisting of a solid polished piece of glass, a lens, Fresnel has a more complex structure. To make it at home.
Instruction
1
To build lens Fresnel yourself need to have substantial understanding about the optics. Thus, in contrast to conventional lenses, the Fresnel is not solid glass, but of concentric rings, having in cross section a special form of prism. Perform calculations and define the boundaries of the zones of Fresnel. They are defined by the intersection of the wave front of an initial wave sequence offset relative to each other by l/2 wave fronts "of the projected wave".
The scheme of zones <strong>Fresnel</strong> for an infinitely distant point of observation (plane wave)
2
Make a transparent ring, which will be odd zones of Fresnel. Their thickness should correspond to an additional phase of the RAID l/2 . For convenience, use the drawing.
How to make <b>lens</b> <strong>Fresnel</strong>
3
To achieve the greatest effect, cover the ends of each prism are coated, for example, aluminum. Will solenice design, checking the position of the prism equation.
4
There are two types of lenses Fresnel – ring and waist. In contrast to the ring of the lens, guides the light flux in a specific direction, the belt spreads the light from the source in all directions. The lenses of Fresnel fields of application very diverse: from marine beacons and lenses to special film put on the rear window of the car to reduce the dead zone behind the car when using the rear view mirror.
5
Simultaneously with the creation of the lenses O. J. Fresnel had developed a complex technology of its manufacture. In a nutshell we are talking about the manufacture of lenses consisting of a set of several prisms in the form of thin rings. In the present context, such production is only possible using advanced high-precision processing, vacuum-deposition, control and measuring equipment.
6
In the manufacture of lenses of Fresnel technology is used HOTLENS holography, through which more precisely focuses the infrared radiation and reduces the penetration, for example, visible light. These lenses allow you to create more precise detection zone in space. In a set of technological equipment for the production of lenses of Fresnel includes precision lathes, which are used for trimming and pre-rounded blanks. Serotonergic machines for processing external and internal surfaces of the lens.
7
The most important stage – the grinding surface of the lens. It is held on the polishing machines. In the polishing process simultaneously removes roughness and improves the purity of the spherical surfaces of the lens. Special machine-polished edge of the lens, and for machining concave and convex surfaces of the lens are the special diamond tools. In addition, such companies made all the necessary technological equipment.

Advice 2: How to make a lens

The lens is a transparent device, mainly from special glass designed to magnify the image. The lens is a major part of any optical system. Its principle of operation is based on refraction of light rays. To make a glass lens in the handicraft way is very difficult, especially without proper equipment in this case is not necessary. But based on the effect of light refraction, you can make a lens based on liquid.
You will need
  • Plastic bottle, plasticine, glycerol, or water, syringe with needle, plastic bag.
Instruction
1
Take a-liter plastic bottle. From the top of the bottle cut out two identical, convex circle (for convenience, cut out one circle and then it cut out the second diameter).
2
Then, take an ordinary clay or some other sticky material. This play-DOH glue both halves of the lens so that both sides of it was convex.
3
After that, in two places, between the halves of the lens make holes. In one of these holes with the syringe and pour the liquid (you can pour ordinary water, but it is better to use a liquid with a large refractive index, try to fill the lens with glycerin, the effect is better), fill it to the brim and it should not be air bubbles. The second hole is for air outlet, so as not to create pressure. After filling the lens with liquid paper over the holes.
4
In extreme conditions, for example, being in the forest in winter, not having matches, you can make a lens for a bonfire. For this, take an ordinary plastic bag and fill it with water. Give the package a spherical shape and let the water freeze. After freezing tear the package and get the lens. The lens can also be cut from the frozen ice.
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