You will need
- a piece of paper
Start with addition. Then write down the numbers that need to be folded under each other, so that units come under units, tens under tens, hundreds under hundreds. Swipe under the lower number line. To fold start with the units, that is, with the latest figures. Less than ten instantly record under the units. If you add get a two-digit number, then the units record the number of units, and the tens — remember. Unable to be sure to write it down somewhere in a corner. Fold the tens. Add to the obtained sum, which you remembered after the addition of the units. Record exactly the same as in the previous step. If it is less than ten, then write all at once, and if more — the number of units and the number of tens remember. In the same way, add the hundreds and thousands.
When you subtract the number recorded in the same way. Subtract the units. If the number of units in umanesimo more than visitama, "take" a dozen. That is, if you subtract 8 from 5, imagine that you are reading not of 5 and 15. Below the line write 7, but the number of tens is reduced by 1. Similarly alternately subtract tens and hundreds, not forgetting where and how much you "borrowed".
By multiplying the number of similarly written one below the other. If you decide an example, consisting of a multiple number in single digits, you first multiply it units, then the tens and subsequent discharges. If the multiplying units, you get a two-digit number, below the line, record the number of units of that number, and the number of tens remember and add after multiplication of the multiplier in tens. Exactly the same with all the other bits. When multiplying multi-digit numbers proceed sequentially. First multiply and write the result of multiplying the second multiplier by the number of units of the first multiplier. Write below the line result. Then multiply the second factor by tens of the first multiplier. Write the second result under the first, but don't forget that you have multiplied by the number of tens, and accordingly, the last digit of the result will be under tens. Similarly, multiply the second factor by the number of hundreds, thousands, and so on, following the order of recording. Under the last result, move the line and add up all the results. This will be the desired product.
To divide one number by another, write the first number, put a division sign, then write the second number and the equal sign. Aside from the beginning of the dividend as many figures, how many of them in private, and see whether the dividend divided by the divisor and how many, approximately, it will turn out in the end. If the number is less than the divisor, put down another figure. Write down the first digit in the private result. Multiply this number by the divisor and the number under sample record, starting with the first digit. Between severable and the written number sign "-".Subtract the first digit of the dividend given number, move the line and write under it the result is, strictly observing the order. The number that you got below the line, add the next digit of the dividend. Divide the resulting number by the divisor, write the result response. Multiply this number by the divisor and subtract the result from the number of which is below the line. Do the same while not using the last digit of the dividend.