Advice 1: What are the icons of the virgin

In Russia, the virgin Mary has always been revered particularly. The virgin Mary is a patroness of Russia, and more than once helped the Russian in the fight against foreign invaders. The confidence of believers in the heavenly intercession of the mother of God is reinforced by events of the distant past, but some facts of contemporary Russian reality, which has already become history. The icons of the virgin have always been treated with great respect. Most famous faces have their own names.




In Russia it is known about 470 names of icons of the virgin. The most famous are Kazan, Vladimir, Fedorov, Iver, seven arrows.

The Kazan icon of the Mother of God is one of the most revered in Russia. The finding of the icon took place in 1579. One day nine-year-old lady appeared in a dream the mother of God. She pointed out the place where the ruins of the burned house to find the icon. The child long did not believe. Some time later the mother the Matron with the girl really dug at the specified location an icon of the virgin. Subsequently there was built a Church and monastery. The original icon was transferred to the Church of St. Nicholas of Tula. Then the miraculous image has long been in the Cathedral of the mother of God monastery. In 1904, the Kazan icon was stolen by the robbers. Since the 16th century, there were several phenomena icons in the lists of the Kazan. The most revered three lists Theotokos Cathedral in Kazan, in Kazan Cathedral in Moscow, in St. Petersburg. The same image of our lady of Kazan was not found to this day.


The miracle-working Vladimir icon of Russia's only preserved to this day in pristine condition. Original. Is a true sanctuary. As the story goes, written by the Evangelist Luke with the image of the virgin Mary when her earthly life. Foundation icons – Board table, behind which sat the Holy Family. The icon is in Russia for eight centuries. Now kept in the Tretyakov gallery in a specially equipped vault. Orthodox can see it in the patronal feasts.

The icon "seven arrows" and "Softener of evil hearts," currently considered versions of the same graphic type. Both in symbolic form depicted the prophecy of St. Simeon to the virgin for the grief and sorrow that she will feel at the sight of the crucified Christ: "You, the sword will pierce the soul". The virgin is depicted with stuck in the heart with swords. The icons have a slight difference seven swords that pierced the heart of Mary, located on them in different ways.

According to legend, the icon, subsequently named Iver, belonged to a pious woman who lived in Ikeja during the period of iconoclasm. The woman paid the soldiers who came to take away the icon, and they agreed to leave the Shrine until the morning. Night with her son a woman went to the shore and put a icon on the water. A miracle happened – the icon floated on the water standing up. The young man withdrew to a monastery on mount Athos. From him the monks learned about the miracle. Much time has passed. One day the monks saw a pillar of fire. He rose up from standing on the water icon. After the prayer and the procession of the pious man Gabriel was honored to accept the icon. She was named Iver. In Russia there are several lists of the miraculous.

Fedorovskaya icon was in the Gorodets monastery of Nizhny Novgorod province. During the invasion of Batu Khan, the inhabitants left the city. They did not manage to get the icon, but she didn't. The icon disappeared, and 1239 was a puppet Prince. Residents of Kostroma had a vision that from Gorodets her made man, which they learned of the great Martyr Theodore Stratelates, how it was portrayed on the icons. Fedorovskaya icon is the patroness of the Romanov dynasty. After the death of the Royal family, the icon darkened so much that it became impossible to see the display. In this state she resides to this day.


Advice 2: What are the mother of God

Among saints venerated by the Christian Church, mother of God, pious virgin who was saving a special place in God's plan to be the mother of Jesus Christ, God the Son in his human incarnation. It is not surprising that the image of this Saint were embodied in the set of icons.
In the Russian Orthodox Church our lady always venerated, especially as patron of Russia. The number of Marian icons in the tens. Some of them are more known, others less – for example, a copy of the Vladimir and Kazan icons are in nearly every temple, and on the Azov or bar icon knows not every Christian.

All the different icons of the virgin is divided into three types – Eleousa, the Hodegetria and the Orans.

Eleousa



The Greek word "eleousa" is translated into Russian language as "lovingkindness" or "mercy". On these icons the virgin Mary is represented in a touching Union with the Divine child whom she holds on her hands. The faces of the mother and Jesus are in contact, and the halos are connected.

This image symbolizes the indissoluble unity of Earth and Heaven, the Creator and the Creation, the infinite love of God to man.

Hodegetria



The icons of the Hodegetria type, the virgin is also depicted on the belt and with a baby on hand, but the emotion the image is more severe.

The infant, seated on the left hand of the virgin, not pressed her, and somewhat detached from it. His left hand raised in a blessing gesture and his right rests on a scroll is the Law. The right hand of the virgin is directed at the child, as if pointing out to the believers the path. Hence the name of the icon of the Hodegetria, Greek Hodegetria.

Orans



The Latin word "Orans means" praying". On these icons the mother of God is depicted in full height, with uplifted prayer hands, and often without the child. However, the image of the Divine child may be present in the lap of the mother of God, this icon is called "Great Panagia ("all Holy"). A depiction of the great Panagia is called the "Sign."

In this type of icon of the mother of God appears as the Holy intercessor, forever asking God for leniency towards people.

This classification represents only a distant view of the huge variety of Marian icons. There are many images belonging to each of these types.

On some icons the virgin is depicted surrounded by other biblical heroes – "the virgin with the prophets, "the virgin and of the blessed virgin".

The names of certain icons refer to any cities, but that doesn't mean that the icons were written there. For example, the Vladimir icon, according to tradition, was written by the Evangelist Luke, in 450 transferred from Jerusalem to Constantinople in the 12th century a copy was sent to Kiev Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, and later his son Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky took it to the North of Russia. A mother of God appeared to the Prince in a dream and commanded to leave the icon in Vladimir, and then the icon was named Vladimir.

Fedorovskaya icon is famous because it Kostroma the clergy went forth to meet the Embassy which brought the young Michael Romanov news about the election to the throne. So, the icon became the patroness of the Romanov dynasty, and the foreign Princess, marriage to Russian tsars, was not only Orthodox names, but the patronymic Fyodorovna.

Many icons of the virgin Mary dedicated to special prayers. Before some icons made to pray in certain situations, talking about it their names: "All the afflicted", "perishing", "childbirth assistant".

To tell about all the Marian icons of the impossible – a lot of them, and behind each is an important part of Christian spiritual experience.
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