Choose a topic and supervisor. The relevance and novelty of the work are the basic criteria of the thesis. However, the level of many scientific studies is poor, and noted in the annual reports of HAC - Higher attestation Commission. In order to navigate the work of colleagues, you should consult the Electronic library of dissertations - http://diss.rsl.ru/. Residents of the regions will be particularly useful section of "Virtual reading rooms". Those libraries that have database access electronic databases.
There are four tactics degree. To become a PhD, you can choose to study at postgraduate or part-time. This is the way to recent students or University staff. In any case, this format requires a constant assistance of the supervisor, classes in philosophy and foreign language (so-called candidate minimum). There are such forms as competition and self-training. The applicant may appear at the University raids. Self-study is more of a rarity than the rule. This option should be borne in mind, but to be guided preferably on the first three. Fellowship involves entrance exams, and competition - going through some bureaucratic procedures. And postgraduate training, and competition may apply. The amount depends on higher education.
The following years involve practical and theoretical work, writing scientific articles and publishing them in journals WAC (this is the list of scientific journals approved by Higher attestation Commission). Graduate pass candidate minimum of philosophy, foreign language and specialty. But most important is the thesis. After it was written (and this is scientific work from 100 to 350 printed pages), you need to squeeze out of it the abstract of the report, which will be heard by the dissertation Council on defense.
Candidate minimums when delivered, the package of articles is ready, the practical part of the research conducted and the thesis with a written thesis, graduate student, or applicant, is to launch protect. Need to find the thesis Committee (usually the scientific Director is well-versed in this issue). For doctors, there are special dissertation councils (doctoral councils), which are authorized to write application to the VAK with the request to award the PhD doctoral degree.
Graduate students ochniki and time students each year write reports on the work done. For resident students, the thesis must be ready in three years. For external students - four. The competition involves a deadline of ten years.