Infection with syphilis occurs both sexually and by contact-household. For Treponema pallidum, causing syphilis, the slightest break in the skin to enter the body and the bloodstream to spread it to all organs. When syphilis is the infection of all body fluids – blood, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, seminal fluid, the secret of the lacrimal glands, amniotic fluid (during pregnancy).
The incubation period of syphilis lasts up to 40 days. And during this time the development of the disease occurs without any signs of infection. The beginning of the first stage of syphilis is evidenced by the formed in place of the introduction Treponema pallidum is painless and firm to the touch sore, the so – called chancre. He has a clear outline with gently sloping edges, smooth bluish-red bottom and seal at the base.
Most often, the chancre appears on external genitals (women may appear on the cervix) and is accompanied by an increase closely located lymph nodes (usually inguinal). In addition to the chancre in the same period there is a General malaise, fever, headaches, bone pain, especially at night, insomnia, anemia. Soon, the chancre takes place, and the disease quietly progresses to the second stage of development that begins with a rash.
The second stage of syphilis lasts 3-4 years, sometimes longer. It is manifested by malaise and frequent, long-lasting rash on the skin. The rash appears in the form of spots, nodules and pustules, form confluent plaques affecting not only the skin but also the mucous membranes. Sometimes rashes strike the entire surface of the body, including the soles and palms. Often the rash appears in the form of garlands or around the neck in the form of white spots, forming the "lace collar" necklace of Venus, which is a symptom of lesions of the nervous system. At this stage the hair falls out, there is baldness.
The symptoms of the second stage of syphilis can disappear for months and years, giving the impression of self-healing. And in fact, syphilis goes into a latent (latent) phase. And for several years this sexually transmitted disease can appear and disappear. At this time it gradually destroys bone and tissue, affects the nervous system. Infected with syphilis at this stage is particularly dangerous.
The third stage of syphilis starts mainly in the 5 th year from the beginning of infection. It is characterized by a pronounced defeat of all organs and systems of the body, especially the nervous system. In this stage of syphilis is also treatable, as in the first two, however, the restoration of the affected organs is becoming impossible and syphilis often ends with disability or deformity, if there is a lesion of the facial tissues.