Advice 1: What does CTP

The abbreviation for CTP is known to almost each inhabitant of the planet, not even having the car. Literally the term stands for "obligatory liability insurance". The insurance policy is a guarantee covering the losses that the owner of the vehicle may cause to other drivers. Initially, this insurance was not mandatory, but in the modern world the lack of motorist "insurance" is punishable by imposing a fine.

A bit of history



The idea of vehicle insurance has arisen several centuries ago. The home insurance is considered to be France. In 1800 years one of the most common types of transportation were omnibuses, which were a kind of a bench wagon. First omnibuses carried out the transportation with the help of horses, but quickly got a motor and became a full-fledged car. One of the drawbacks of the omnibus is a very slow speed and the so-called "clumsiness". With it mode of transport in 1896 occurred the world's first crash involving a car, which also entailed serious consequences.

This event became the cause of thoughts about possible ways to protect their property, health and life. It is worth noting that the cars and all means of transportation in those days was considered a great luxury to afford which could not every. Martin Truman is the first "owner", who wishes to insure not only their property but also the liability to other road users.

The emergence of CTP



In Europe the insurance of liability of vehicle owners became compulsory in 1925. In this period the famous Ford actively increased mass production of cars, which affected not only the emergence of availability of vehicles for the population, but in the indirect extent was the cause of numerous accidents.

Mass insurance of cars in Russia appeared only in 1899. During this period on our roads appeared first on "foreign cars". To insure the transport of their responsibility has become profitable for car owners, so in the early 1900-ies almost every driver sought to enter into a policy of voluntary insurance.
The meaning of CTP is damages, which the driver may cause to other motorist during traffic.


In 2003, Russia had issued a new law which meant the already not voluntary and compulsory insurance of third party liability. The main reason for this decision was a significant increase on the roads not only cars of domestic production, but first and foremost, cars.

CTP today



Currently CTP is a mixed reaction of vehicle owners. Some drivers consider this type of insurance is useless, the other does not suit the calculation of insurance premiums, and the third category of people considers the insurance policy the main guarantee of protection for its property and liability. It is noteworthy that the transcript of CTP know not every policyholder.
Insurance assumes compensation of damage not only vehicles, but also to the health of drivers.


The insurance fees are set by the government. No insurance company has no right to make their own changes to the calculation of the insurance premium. At registration of policy OSAGO the important role played by year of production, engine power, experience of the drivers and quality of driving, reflected in the ratio of break-even experience. In addition, the cost of insurance affects the region in which the registered owner of the vehicle.

Advice 2: As stands for air defense

In military literature there are many different abbreviations. Each of them is hiding any weapons or military equipment or a particular kind or branch of service. Army pilots of foreign countries with special respect to the Russian air defense acronym, which stands for "air defense".

PVO – air shield



Antiaircraft defense of the country – a separate type of armed support in the framework of the protection of state from aerial attacks. The first unit, designed for anti-air threat, was created in Russia before the revolution, in the distant 1914. Equipped with light guns and machine gun mounts, these groups successfully resisted the German airplanes.

But the real test of readiness of air defense system to defend the country was the Great Patriotic war. During the air battles on the approaches to Moscow and Leningrad Soviet anti-aircraft gunners inflicted considerable damage on Nazi aircraft. For the entire war period air defence units destroyed or disabled more than seven thousand enemy aircraft.

The value of defense for the state is so great that the country has established a special holiday – Day of air defense forces, which by tradition every year is celebrated on the second Sunday of April. Time for the holiday date is chosen not casually. It was in April, was made the most important decisions about the organization of the armed forces, their formation and development.

The troops of constant combat readiness



Modern air defense troops of Russia is a branch of the armed forces with a mandate to cover military and civilian objects and military formations from possible strikes by means of air attack potential enemy. Domestic units of the air defense able to destroy aircraft of the enemy at various altitudes, regardless of the speed of flight.

In peacetime, air defense units are around the clock combat duty, vigilantly guarding the aerial frontiers of the country and the approaches to critical objects of strategic importance. If you need to participate in actual combat, air defense forces will be able to conduct aerial reconnaissance, to notify ground targets about the threat of air attack and all available means to destroy aircraft and other means of enemy attack.

From the perspective of the organizational structure of air defense forces consist of controls, the hidden command posts, radar and anti-aircraft missile units, and aviation. Units are characterized by high mobility and survivability. Hidden from prying eyes, detection and rocket launchers is able to detect enemy aircraft on the distant approaches and in a timely manner to neutralize the enemy's means of air attack.
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